Cognitive therapy is a short-term system which can be applied to all behavioral, emotional and interpersonal problems. The emphasis is on how people interpret events and how people can be helped by challenging their interpretations.
Since I first studied cognitive therapy in graduate school, the field has grown tremendously. There are now applications to anxiety, depression, marriage counseling, and literally hundreds of studies proving its efficacy.
Schema therapy was developed from traditional cognitive therapy by Dr. Jeffrey Young and colleagues over the last 20 years. It can be either long-term or short-term. The emphasis is on combating patterns of thoughts, which can impact negatively on you for your entire life. Techniques have been developed for weakening these thinking patterns and solving the related problems.
Read more about Schema Therapy in Archives of General Psychiatry.